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中考英语总复习之词汇复习二

手机游戏库 2022-11-24 18:53:21 游戏资讯 130 阅读

上一讲里,主要帮助同学们掌握名词、冠词、数词的用法,特别是针对同学不易掌握的方面。

传送门

中考英语总复习·词汇一

此讲内容为代词、形容词、副词、介词、连词

代词

代词

①人称代词:

主格:

单数:I 、you 、he 、she 、it

复数:we 、you 、they
宾格:

单数:me 、you 、him 、her 、it

复数:us 、you 、them

②物主代词:

形容词性:

my 、your 、his 、her 、its 、our 、your 、their

名词性:

mine 、yours 、his 、hers 、its 、ours 、yours 、theirs

③反身代词:

myself 、yourself 、himself 、herself 、itself 、ourselves 、yourselves 、themselves

1.形容词性物主代词在句中只能作定语,相当于一个形容词,名词性物主代词在句中可作表语、主语和宾语,相当于一个名词。

2.注意名词性物主代词在句中所指代的关系,是单数还是复数。

例如:

⑴These books aren't ours.

Ours are new.

(这里ours=our books)

⑵This is not our room.

Ours is over there.

(这里ours=our room)


3."of+名词性物主代词"表示所属 如:

a sister of his 他的一个妹妹

a friend of mine 我的一个朋友

4.人称代词在并列使用时的顺序为:

“第二人称,第三人称,第一人称”。

例如:

You, she and I all enjoy the music.

5.关于反身代词,同学们须掌握其固定结构:

enjoy oneself=have a good time

(过得很愉快)

by oneself=alone (单独、独自)

help oneself to…

(随便吃/喝 些...)

learn sth. by oneself

=teach oneself sth. (自学)

(二) 修饰可数名词

many few 表否定意义

a few 表肯定意义

修饰不数名词

much little 表否定意义

a little 表肯定意义

few 和 little 与 quite 或 only 连用时,常加不定冠词 a.

例如:

There are quite a few new books in the library.

(三)不定代词:

something, anything, nothing.

当形容词修饰这三个不定代词时,常后置。

(四)另外,还要注意代词some, every, all, both, either, another

1.some(一些,某) 一般用于肯定句中 注:some有时也可用于表示请求的疑问句中。

any(任何) 多用于疑问句和否定句

① Will you give me some water?

② Would you like some meat?

③ May I ask some questions?

④ Could I have some apples?

2.every+单数名词 “每一个” 强调共性,作定语,形式上为单数。

each “每一个” 强调个性,作定语、主语、宾语和同位语,常与of连用。

例如:

Each student was asked to try again. Each of them has a nice skirt.

Every child likes playing games.


3.all “(全部)都” 表示三者或三者以上,作同位语时,一般放在连系、助动词之后,行为动词之前。

none “没有”表示三者或三者以上都不,后常跟介词of

例如:

We are all from Canada. = All of us are from Canada.

None of us is/are afraid of dogs.(单、复数均可)

4.both “(两者)都” ,作主语时,看作复数;作定语时,后跟名词复数。

either “两者中任何一个” ,作主语时,谓语用第三人称单数;作定语时,后跟名词单数。

neither “(两者)都不”,含有否定意义,用法同either。

例如:

①They both swim well.

=Both of them swim well.

②There are trees on both sides of the street. = There are trees on either side of the street.

③Neither of us is going to Beijing next week.

④Neither answer is right.

5. another +单数名词, “另一个”

one … the other

“一个……,另一个……”
the other +复数名词

= the others “其他的人或物”

(指确定范围内剩下的全部)

others “别人”

(五)疑问代词 5个“wh”, 即who, whose, whom, what, which

这里,which是同学们不易掌握的内容,其实,同学们只须记住,对作定语的内容提问,常用which.

形容词 副词

大多数的形容词、副词都有三个等级: 原级:比较级: 比较...,更...一些 最高级: 最...

(A)

1.构成:(规则情况)情况 变化方法例词

单音节词和少数双音节词: 一般情况 加er, est clever-cleverer-cleverest

以字母e结尾加r, st nice-nicer-nicest

重读闭音节、末尾只有一个辅音字母时 双写加er, est big-bigger-biggest

以辅音字母加y结尾 变y为i加er, est early-earlier-earliest

部分双音节和多音节词在词前加more, most slowly-more slowly-most slowly

2.不规则变化,须熟记:

good/well-better-best

many/much-more-most

far-farther-farthest

bad/badly/ill-worse-worst

little-less-least

(B)常见的使用情况

1.as … as … 和...一样(中间用原级)
2.not as(so) … as 和...不一样(中间用原级) 3… than …. ..比...(用比较级)

4.有范围修饰的用最高级 如:in, of, among或用从句修饰的

例如:

⑴Winter is the coldest season of the year. ⑵This is the best film that I have ever seen .

5.比较级+and+比较级 意为“越来越….

例如: wetter and wetter more and more beautiful

6. The+比较级,the+比较级 越…...就越…... eg:The more, the better. 越多越好

(C)注意点:

1.形容词最高级前一定要用the,副词最高级前可省略。

2.可用much, a little, even, still等修饰比较级。

3.在比较级中为了避免重复,在than后常用one,that,those等词来替代前面提到过的名词。

例如:The weather here is warmer than that of Shanghai.

(D)掌握三种同义句转换:

1.He is taller than any other student in his class. =He is the tallest (student)in his class.

2.This film is less interesting than that one. =This film isn't as interesting as that one.
=That film is more interesting than this one.

3.I prefer maths to English. =I like maths better than English.

此外,关于形容词、副词的内容同学们还须掌握:

1.形容词修饰名词作定语,跟在连系动词之后作表语。

2.副词修饰动词、形容词或其它副词

enough属例外词:形/副+enough to do enough+名词

例如;

She is old enough to go to school.

她够上学的年龄了。

3.区别几组易混淆的副词: 也 too用于肯定、疑问句

also 较为正式书面语

either 用于否定句

已经 already 常用于肯定句、疑问句 yet 常用于否定句、疑问句

不再 no (not any) longer 从时间上讲 no (not any) more 从动作上讲

如此这样 such 修饰名词

例如:

such a big box

so 修饰形容词、副词

例如:

so big

单独、独自 alone

作表语 =by oneself 孤独的 lonely 可作表语、定语

介词

1.与形容词搭配的词组有:be afraid of (怕) be angry with (生某人的气)

be away from (不在某地)

be different from (与…不同)

be good at (善于)

be good/ bad for (对…有益/有害)

be interested in (对…感兴趣)

be late for (迟到)

be/get ready for (为作好准备

be sure of (对…有把握)

be worried about (为…感到担忧)

2.介词后常用人称代词宾格和动词-ing形式

1)You must take good care of her. 2)Thank you for teaching us so well.

3.几组易混淆的介词

A. “在...之后” in + 一段时间(用于一般将来时)

after + 一段时间(用于一般过去时) after + 一点时间(常用于一般将来时)

例如:

The baby stopped crying after half an

The baby will stop crying in half an hour. They will visit their teacher after Friday.

B. for +一段时间

since +过去的一点时间

这两者均用于现在完成时,具体在时态部分,我会继续向同学们讲解。

C. be made of "用……制成" be made in “由某地制造”be made by somebody “由某人制成”

D. in, on, at表时间

in “在某月(季节、年)等” eg:in 1996, in January, in summer

固定词组:

in the morning, in a week,in a minute,in time, in the end

on "用于指具体的某一天或专指某一天上午、下午或晚上等"

例如:on Christmas Day, on the night of February 16

at “用于具体时刻前和某些固定词组中”

固定词组:

at seven, at the moment, at night, at last, at first, at noon, at times, at once, at this time of the year, at the beginning of, at the end of this month, at the same time

在表时间里,下列情况下一般不用介词。词组里有:next, last, this, that, tomorrow, yesterday, one, every, all 以及the day before yesterday和the day after tomorrow 前不用介词 。

例如:

不能说 in tomorrow ,只能说 tomorrow 在明天

E. except +宾格/doing something "除…之外” (不包括本身)

例如:

Everyone is at school today except Lin Tao. (同义句转换)

=Only Lin Tao isn't at school today.

F.“用” 通过交通工具 by plane

用语言 in English 通过媒介 on /over the telephone, on /over the radio, on TV

用工具手段 with a pen, with one's hands

G.between “在~和~(两者)之间”

between...and..., between the two... among 在...之间(三者或三者以上)

例如:Sue spent over two hours ___ her homework yesterday evening.

A.on B.with C.at D.over

连词

并列连词

both…and 既~又~谓语用复数动词

neither…nor 既不~也不~含否定意义,(就近原则)谓语动词由靠近它的那个主语来决定单复数。

either…or… “或者 …或者…”“不是…就是…”

and“和” 连接两个并列成分,连接谓语时,两个动词时态应一致。

but “但是” 表转折,不能与 though 同时出现在句中。

or “或者”在否定句中,并列句中的列举常用 or,而不用 and。

例如:I have brothers and sisters.(否)

I don't have brothers or sisters.

= I have no brothers and no sisters.

引导宾语从句的连词

陈述句:that 可省略 一般疑问句:if /whether “是否” 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词

引导原因状从

because (不能与so同时出现在句中)

引导时间状语从句的连词

A. when(当…时候),as soon as…(一…就),not…until(直到…才),after(在…之后),引导的主从复合句,主句为一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时来代替一般将来时。

例如:

I won't leave until he comes back.

B. since(自从…以来)引导的主从复合句,主句为现在完成时,从句用一般过去时。

例如:We haven't met each other since she left here last year.

C. while(当…时候,一边…一边…)它引导的时间状语从句常用进行时态。

例如:My father came in while I was doing my homework.

引导条件状语从句的连词

if “如果”,引导条件状从,主句用一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时。请区别于if“是否”相当于 whether,引导宾语从句,时态根据语境确定

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