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英语词法之形容词和副词详解及配套习题

手机游戏库 2022-11-24 16:56:24 游戏解说 142 阅读

一、形容词

1、 形容词概述

形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。大部分形容词直接说明事物的性质或特征,有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的,beautiful美丽的。有的形容词只能作表语,没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。例如:afraid害怕的,asleep睡着的。

2、 形容词的用法

1)作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前面。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为词尾的词语即复合不定代词时,要放在这些词之后。

例如:What an interesting movie it is! 多么有趣的一部电影啊!

There is nothing interesting in today’s newspaper.今天的报纸没有什么有趣的内容。

2)作表语放在系动词后面。

例如:The food smells delicious. 食物闻起来很香。

3)位于宾语后面做宾语补足语。

例如:You must keep your classroom clean and tidy.你们必须保持教室干净整洁。

4)少数形容词只能作表语,如:afraid, asleep, awake, alone, alive, well(健康的),ill,sorry,glad,sure,pleased等。

例如:He is alone in the classroom.他独自在教室。

She has been asleep for three hours.她睡了三个小时了。

5)某些形容词之前加上冠词the表示一类人,如 the rich, the poor, the young, the old, the deaf, the blind, the living, the dead, the hungry等。

例如:The rich should help the poor. 富人应该帮助穷人。

The young should be polite to the old.年轻人对老年人应该有礼貌。

二、副词

1、 副词概述

副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,其他副词或句子。

2、 副词的分类和用法

1) 时间副词:如now,today,yesterday,soon等,在句子中担任时间状语,是决定动词时态的主要依据之一。

例如:There is going to be a class meeting tomorrow.明天将有一个班会。

They visited the aquarium yesterday. 他们昨天参观了水族馆。

2) 频度副词:如sometimes,often, always, usually等,在句子中担任时间状语,是决定动词时态的主要依据之一。

例如:They have never seen each other before.他们以前从未见过面。

What do you usually do on weekends?你们周末通常做什么?

3) 地点副词:如here, there, home, somewhere, anywhere,outside等,在句子中担任地点状语。

例如:I have looked for my pen everywhere, but I can’t find it anywhere.我到处找了我的钢笔,但哪儿都没看见。

4) 方式副词:如slowly, quickly, fast, luckily, easily等,在句子中担任方式状语。这类副词大都由“形容词+ly”构成。

例如:Please speak more slowly so that we can hear you clearly.请慢点说以便我们能够听清楚你说的内容。

5) 程度副词:如very, quite, rather, too, much, so等,在句子中修饰形容词或其他副词,作状语。

例如:It’s much too hot in Changsha these days.这些天长沙太热了。

The little boy can play the guitar very well.这小男孩吉他弹得非常好。

6) 疑问副词:如when, where, why, how, how long, how soon, how often, how far,how old等,放在句首构成特殊疑问句。

例如:How soon will your father be back home? 你爸过多久回到家?

How often do you go to the movie? 你们隔多久看一次电影?

7) 关系副词:如when, where, why, how等,用来引导相关从句。

例如:What were you doing when the UFO landed? UFO着陆时你在干什么?

I ‘d like to go somewhere where people are friendly. 我想去人们友好的地方。

3、副词的位置

总的来说,很多副词的位置比较灵活,在句子开头、中间、结尾都可以。但是请注意下面几点:

1)频度副词作状语时放在be动词、助动词、情态动词之后,行为动词之前。

例如:He is never late for school.他上学从不迟到。

He usually goes to see his grandparents on Saturday. 他通常周六去看望爷爷奶奶。

2)enough修饰形容词或副词时要放在被修饰词的后面。

例如:The little boy isn’t old enough to go to school. 小男孩没到上学的年龄。

He ran fast enough to catch the thief. 他跑得够快,抓住了小偷。

三、形容词和副词的比较等级

1、 形容词和副词比较等级的构成

绝大多数形容词和副词有三个等级:原级(原形)、比较级和最高级,他们的构成规则大致相同。列表如下:

表一:规则变化


构成方法

原级

比较级

最高级





单音节

词和少

数双音

节词

一般直接在词尾加-er,-est

tall

short

taller

shorter

tallest

shortest

以不发音的e结尾的加-er,-st

nice

large

nicer

larger

nicest

largest

以辅音字母加y结尾的,先改y为i,再加-er,-est

heavy

early

heavier

earlier

heaviest

earliest

以重读闭音节结尾、且词尾只有一个辅音字母的,先双写该辅音字母,再加-er,-est


thin

big


thinner

bigger


thinnest

biggest

多音节词和部分双音节词(尤其是带词缀的双音节词)




在原级前加more,most



interesting

important

quickly



more interesting

more important

more quickly



most interesting

most important

most quickly



表二:不规则变化

原级

比较级

最高级

good, well

better

best

many, much

more

most

bad,ill, badly

worse

worst

little

less

least

far

farther较远(字面意义)

further进一步(引申意义)

farthest最远(字面意义)

furthest最大限度(引申意义)

old

older年纪较大的(用于比较级)

elder较年长的(只用作定语)

oldest年纪最大的(用于最高级)

eldest最年长的(只用作定语)

2、形容词、副词比较级和最高级的用法

1)两者之间进行比较用比较级。其常见句子结构为:A +谓语动词+比较级+than+B。

例如:This tree is taller than that one.这棵树比那棵树高。

Lily has more friends than I. 莉莉比我朋友多。

Tom runs faster than Jim. 汤姆比吉姆跑得快。

注:可以用程度副词a little, a lot, a bit, much, even, still, far等修饰比较级,表示比较的程度差异。

例如:It is much hotter in Changsha than that in Beijing in summer.长沙的夏天比北京的夏天热得多。

He studies English a lot harder than the other students in his class.他学英语比班上其他同学努力得多。

2)在三者或三者以上的人或物之间进行比较时用最高级,形容词最高级前必须加定冠词the,副词最高级前the可加可不加,句子中常有in或of短语来表示比较的范围。其常见句子结构为:A+谓语动词+the+最高级+比较范围。

例如:Changjiang is the longest river in China.长江是中国最长的河流。

Rruce runs fastest of the three. 布鲁斯是三个人中跑得最快的。

3)表示A和B在某一方面相同或不及时用同级比较。其常见句型为:A+谓语动词+as+原级+as+B。其否定结构为:A+谓语动词(not)+as/so+原级+as+B。

例如:English is as important as Chinese.英语和语文一样重要。

Math is not as interesting as History. 数学不如历史有趣味。

He speaks English as well as Chinese. 他英语和汉语说得一样好。

She doesn’t do her homework as carefully as her brother.她做作业不如她哥哥细心。

4)选择疑问句比较级和最高级的句型分别为:“疑问词+谓语动词+比较级,A or B?”和“疑问词+谓语动词+最高级,A,B or C?”

例如:Which is bigger, the sun or the earth?太阳或地球,哪个更大?

Which is the biggest, the sun, the earth or the moon? 太阳、地球或月亮,哪个最大?

Who plays soccer better, David or Martin?戴维或马丁,谁足球踢得更好?

Who plays soccer best, David, Martin or Bill?戴维、马丁或比尔,谁足球踢得最好?

5)表示“越……就越……”时,其句型为“the +比较级,the+比较级”。

例如:The more trees, the better. 树木越多越好。

The harder you study, the better grades you will get. 学习越努力,成绩就越好。

6)表示“越来越……”时,用比较级的叠加形式,即:比较级+ and+比较级。

例如:It’s getting hotter and hotter. 天气越来越热了。

The city is becoming more and more beautiful. 城市越来越漂亮了。


多个形容词修饰名词的顺序

限定词-- 数词-- 描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色,国籍,材料性质)-- 类别-- 名词

限:限定词。the, my, a, this,those,etc.

数:数词。序数词在前,基数词在后。first,third;four,fifty,etc.

描:描绘性形容词。brave, beautiful, lovely, nice,wonderful,expensive,dirty,horrible,handsome,valuable,etc.

大:大小、长短、高低等形容词。big,large,small,little,long,tall,etc.

形:形状。round,square,etc.

新:年龄大小、新旧、年代等。young,old,new,etc.

颜:颜色。red,blue,green,etc.

国:国籍、地区、出处。Chinese,America,Japanese,etc.

材:物质材料的形容词。golden,wooden,wax,stone, silk,etc.

类:表示类别、用途。medical school, writing desk, chemical weapons,etc.

大长高新颜国材

例:those three beautiful large square old brown wooden table

大小形状和新老,颜色国际出(处)材料

例:a pretty little square old black Japanese wooden writing desk

美小圆旧黄,中国木书房

美:描述或性质类;小:大小、长短、高低、胖瘦类;圆:形状类形容词;旧:新旧、年龄类形容词;黄:颜色类形容词;中国:来源、国籍、地区、出处类形容词;木:物质、材料。

例:a beautiful short new red Chinese woolen coat

典型例题:

1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys.

A. little two other B. two little other C. two other little D. little other two

答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的顺序可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。

2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.

A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old 答案A。 大长高新颜国材。

3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?

---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside.

A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last

答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照:限定词 + 数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+ 性状形容词 + 大小、长短、高低等形体 + 新旧 + 颜色 + 国籍 + 材料 + 名词

实战演练(2×50) 计分:

1 In Huaihua it’s ________ in summer, but it is even _______ in Changsha.

A. hotter, hottest B. hot, hotter C. hotter, hot

2 The sea looks very _____ when the sun is shining on it.

A. beautiful B. more beautiful C. the most beautiful

3 Can you go shopping with me ? I have _______ to buy.

A. something useful B. useful something C. nothing useful

4 At my birthday party, my friend Helen is _______ to make us all _______.

A. enough funny, laugh B. funny enough, laugh C. enough funny, to laugh

5 The 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing. What _____ news to us all at that moment!

A. an exciting B. an excited C. exciting

6 His father began to work as ________ as he was seventeen.

A. old B. early C. far

7 Henry is a little _________ than Bill.

A. strong B. stronger C. strongest

8 ________, the healthier you will be.

A. The more money you get B. The taller you are C. The better habits you have

9 The doctor told Mary to eat _________ vegetables and _______ meat because she was getting fatter and fatter.

A. much; little B. more ; less C. many; few

10 ---What do you think of the lecture(演讲) of Li Yang’s Crazy English?

---I think it’s ________, but someone thinks it’s much too _______.

A. wonderful enough; bored B. enough wonderful; boring

C. wonderful enough; boring

11 She told us a story. Her voice sounded ________.

A. sweet B. small C. clearly D. sadly

12 ---I think our chemistry teacher is working hard. He teaches us _______.

---Yes, but he hasn’t come today. He doesn’t feel _______.

A. good; well B. well; well C. well; good

13 ---Mum, could I have an MP3 like this?

---Certainly, we can buy _______ one, but as good as this.

A. a cheap B. a cheapest C. a cheaper

14 This sweater doesn’t suit me. It’s a bit small. Could you give me ______ one?

A. a large B. a larger C. the largest

15 This math problem is ________ that one.

A. not so easy as B. more easy than C. easy than

16 When winter comes, the days get ________.

A. short and short B. shorter and shorter C. long and long

17 Paul is the _______ of the two children in his family.

A. most fattest B. fattest C. fatter

18 ---This cake is delicious. ---Well, at least it is ________ the one I baked last week.

A. as worse as B. as better than C. not worse than

19 They have just cleaned the windows, so the room looks _______.

A. much brighter B. more bright C. less bright

20 ---Why didn’t you enjoy the talk? ---It was ________ talk that I had ever listened to.

A. the most interesting B. the least interesting C. more interesting

21 Shanghai is bigger than _________ in Australia.

A. any city B. any cities C. any other city

22 ---You have got the same shirt as I ---Yes. Mine is ______, but not so ______ as yours.

A. better; expensive B. better; more expensive C. more better; expensive

23 Now the air in our town is _______ than it used to be. Something must be done to stop it.

A. very good B. much better C. even worse

24 It’s _______ today than yesterday.

A. quite colder B. a little colder C. much cold

25 Who runs ______, Tom or Jim?

A. fast B. faster C. fastest

26 We should use ______ plastic bags to protect our environment.

A. more B. less C. fewer

27 ---________ is Lucky 52 shown on CCTV-2? ---Every week.

A. How far B. How often C. How long

28 My classmates don’t smoke. I don’t, ________.

A. too B. neither C. either

29 ---What do you think of the football match? ---Wonderful. They have never played ______.

A. best B. better C. worse

30 Though the player is over thirty, he can still run ______ some younger players.

A. as fast as B. so fast as C. much fast than

31 ---You are standing too near to the TV. Can you move a bit _______?

---OK, Mom. Is it all right here?

A. faster B. slower C. farther D. nearer

32 Though he has studied ____ at Russian for ten months, he can still _____ speak the language.

A. hard; hard B. hardly; hardly C. hard; hardly

33 Don’t worry, sir. I’m sure I can run ______ to catch up with him.

A. fast enough B. enough fast C. slowly enough

34 Of all the students, Linda draws ________ carefully.

A. most B. much C. more

35 Wang Ping does ______ in physics of all the subjects.

A. badly B. most badly C. worst

36 ---How does Bill drive now, Sue? ---He drives _______ me.

A. much more careful than B. as careful as C. even more carefully than

37 Please write to me as______ as possible.

A. soon B. quickly C. fast

38 ou will realize the importance of mastering a foreign language ______ in the future.

A. sometime B. some times C. sometimes

39 It’s _______ a beautiful stamp.

A. quite B. too C. very

40 Bob never does his homework _______ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.

A. so careful as B. as carefully as C. carefully as

41 Among the three boys he works perhaps the ____________.

A. hard B. harder C. hardest D. most hard

42 She always finishes her homework on time. She _______ leaves it for tomorrow.

A. always B. never C. usually

43 The more we look at the picture, ______.

A. the better we liked it B. the less we like it C. we like it less

44 Who used to get up ________ in your class during the summer trip?

A. earlier B. earliest C. the most early

45 ---Do you prefer music to drawing? ---No. I like drawing _______.

A. well B. most C. better

46 Don’t worry. We’ve got ________ for all of you.

A. big enough a room B. enough big a room C. a big enough room

47 Can you imagine that _______ little ants can carry ______ many big worms?

A. so; so B. such; such C. such; so D. so; such

48 ---Did Han Meimei pick a lot of apples?

---Yes. She picked _______ than any of us.

A. many more B. much more C. the most

49 ---Who jumped the _______ of all in the long jump? ---Li Lei did.

A. longest B. longer C. farthest

50 Beijing has _____ many buses that there is often a traffic jam in rush hours.

A. so B. very C. too


参考答案:

01-05 BAABC 06-10 BBCBC 11-15 ABCBA 16-20 BCCAB 21-25 AACBB

26-30 CBCBA 31-35 CCAAC 36-40 CAAAB 41-45 CBBBC 46-50 CCACA

标签:the 形容 英语 副词

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